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Native American Indians
SS4H1 The student will describe how early Native American cultures developed in North America.
a. Locate where Native Americans settled with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plateau (New Perce), Southwest (Hopi), Plains (Pawnee), and Southeast (Seminole).
b. Describe how Native Americans used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
The men and women of the Pawnee Indians had very distinctive roles in every day life. The mature women did most of the labor while the younger women would learn the responsibilities and what was expected of them. The older women were in charge of looking after the younger children of the tribe while the other women worked. The men were divided into three groups: the medicine men/priests, the warriors and the hunters. The Pawnee Indians practiced a religion that tried to maintain a balance between the gods and nature. To have a good crop, they planted them according to the position of the stars, as they equated the stars with the gods. They were known to sacrifice maize and other crops to the gods, but may have also sacrificed humans up until the mid-eighteenth century.
The location of the Pawnee tribe is the great Baison the states in the Great baison are Oklahoma,Texas,Arkansas,Kansas,Colorado,Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Wyoming. Pawnee's land is in the dry states of the U.S. this land has little water so they Irrigation water to crops. They store food for the winter when the snow is coming down they hunt bison when it is fall they grow crops. The food they have is bison, corn, sqush, and beans.
Weapons and Tools
Pawnee hunters used bows and arrows, spears and knives. They made their weapons and tools out of wood, buffalo parts, flint and stone. The Pawnee cherished the buffalo as a gift. The bones, teeth, horns and fur of the Buffalo were used to build objects, to help routine activities and to create more tools with many functions. They also used flint sharpened into a point for arrows. For hoes they tied strings of buffalo rawhide to sticks. In battles the men used their bows and arrows or fought with war clubs and spears. The children often hunted with their fathers. They hunted buffalo while riding on horses and shot the buffalo with their spears.
Men and women participated in storytelling, music and artwork. Pawnee music was simple in its melody and rhythm and was an important part of Pawnee ceremonial activities. The instruments were made from sticks, animal hides, parts and sinew. The Pawnee indians used music in their ceremonies and they participated in Ghost Dances. The Pawnees believed that by doing the Ghost Dance, the dead could communicate with the living through the visions brought about during the dance. For these dances they wore face painting and used feathers as hair ornaments. In their dance visions, they saw themselves as either an eagle or a crow. After the dance was over, the Pawnees would wear the feathers of the animal they saw in their vision.
The flag song
Below is one of the songs they used in their Ghost Dance ceremony.
The Pawnee indians are called other names too like Paneassa, Pari, Pariki,or what they called themselves Chaticks-si-Chaticks that means men of men.
Their tribe consisted of four bands: Chaui (Grand), Kitkehahki (Republican), Pitahauerat (Tappage), and Skidi (Wolf).
They also played a very important part in limiting the Spanish expansion onto the Great Plains. They sided with the French and won a very important battle against the Spanish in 1720
A confederacy beloging to the caddoan family. The name is probably derived from parika ,a horn ,a termused to designate the peculiar manne of dressing the scalp-lock,by which the hair was stiffened with paint and fat,and made to stand erect and curved like a horn.
The pawnee women used buffalo skin to make clothing for their people. In thesummer the boys and men wore light clothing and moccasins. For winter they added robes and long leather pants to not freeze. Men were two belts also. The first belt held up their cloths. The second belt was made with thick hide and was used for hanging tomahawk, knife, and guns.
In the summer women and girls wore skirts and moccasins. Moccasins are shoes made out of animal skins.
The beads on the moccasins were made out of wood that the Pawnee carved. They used rocks and berrys to color them. They wore buckskin dresses or wrap around skirts with an overblouse and leggings in the winter. Pawnee men and women all pierced their ears because they all wore earrings. No one ever wore hats.
The main food they ate are buffalo and corn. The women always cooked the food and the men hunted both men and women grew crops. In the earth lodge the women on the south side prepare one meal, while the women on the north prepared another meal. The Pawnee were farmers and hunters. They hunted buffalo, antelope, and wolves. They hunted and raccoons, otter, quails, skunks, and prairie chickens. They grew corn, pumpkin, beans, squash, pecans, wallnuts, giner, carrots, oion, sweet potatos, turnips, and berries. They made and ate jerky, because they could save it for months.
Pawnee lived in earth lodges next to rivers. Ten family members could fit in the earth covered house. The Pawnee were famous for earth lodges. They made theroof of the earth lodges out of sticks and mud.Tipis were made of logs and buffalo skin. Eighteen people could fit into the tipis. Tipis were strong against the wind, and they were
light to carry. They were easy to carry for the tribes. Tipis had a smoke hole for cooking and fires.
They used the enviroment to hunt, grow, make clothing, fires, and shelter. Crops it had good soil, sun, and water. Hunting in plains was easy to find grazing animals and to find tools to make weapons to hunt with. They would also use animal skins to make clothing for summer and winter. They would make homes with trees and animal skins to make tee peas. They would also be able to find wood. This is saying how they use their enviroment to up tain their lives. The panwee indains used the land for many things this is how they surived.
This is a map of where the Pawnee lived.
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